Both the Assad government and Iran welcomed Tuesday`s agreement. These roads have not been active since 2014, but have become viable again after the government, backed by Russia and Iran, recaptured Aleppo in December 2016. These roads would help restore trade between neighbouring Turkey and the territories held by the regime. The document states that these measures are a means of „guaranteeing the free movement of residents and goods and restoring trade and economic relations.“ He stressed that much more needed to be done to reach a comprehensive agreement on the 15 km demilitarized zone. It states that „the delineation of the exact lines of the demilitarized zone will be determined by further consultations.“ He added that „both sides have reaffirmed their determination to fight terrorism in Syria in all its forms and manifestations.“ Russia negotiated a ceasefire and negotiated the agreement in 1992. The agreement essentially established a ceasefire between Georgian and South Ossetian forces, but also defined a conflict zone around the capital of South Ossetia, Tskhinvali, and established a security corridor along the border of unrecognized areas of South Ossetia. The agreement also established a joint control commission and a peacekeeping body, the Joint Armed Forces Peacekeeping Group (JPKF). The JPKF was placed under Russian command and consisted of peacekeeping forces from Georgia, Russia and North Ossetia (the separatist government of South Ossetia is not yet recognized; However, South Ossetia`s peacekeeping forces served in the North Ossetian contingent). In addition, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) said it was ready to monitor the ceasefire and facilitate negotiations. [1] [2] The OSCE has sought to eliminate sources of tension, support the existing ceasefire and create a broader policy framework to mitigate long-term discord. [3] [4] The document, obtained exclusively by The National, lists a 10-point plan to avoid an offensive in the northwestern province of Syria. In addition to the demilitarized zone, which would be „15-20 km deep in the de-escalation zone,“ the document acknowledges the Iranian-Russian-Turkish Coordination Centre as a role in the implementation of the ceasefire. The centre was created as part of Astana discussions.

Once again, a 1993 agreement, negotiated by Russia, the ceasefire agreement in Abkhazia and a mechanism to ensure compliance, allowed a moratorium on the use of force, the withdrawal of belligerents from the war zone within a fortnight, the creation of a Russian-Abkhaz control group to monitor the ceasefire, the return of the Abkhaz Parliament to Sumiouk , UN observers on the territory, and the resumption of talks on the settlement of the dispute. In August of the same year, UNMOT was deployed as a United Nations monitoring force. The ceasefire was violated on 27 September when Abkhazian troops conquered Sukhumi and proclaimed victory. Pro-Georgian forces then withdrew to Tbilisi when Georgia joined the CIS and changed Russia`s attitude towards Georgia on this issue. In 2003, Russian President Vladimir Putin met with Georgian President Shevardnadze and Abkhazian Prime Minister Gennadi Gagulia and launched a Sochi process to establish a Georgian-Russian-Abkhaz working group on confidence-building measures (CBM). The parties have tried to facilitate the return of refugees and economic reconstruction. The Sochi process meant a retreat from multilateralism to a bilateral format that left Georgia alone to face Russia and the Abkhazians. It was also seen that Georgia`s argument that the Geneva process was the only format for a comprehensive settlement of the conflict would be compromised. [7] In 2004, Russia was considered a violation of the agreement when a Russian company began maintenance work on the Sochi-Sukhumi railway line, which was legally Georgian, although controlled by Russia and the Abkhazians. This measure was considered an offence in which recovery could only be done in parallel with the safe return of Georgian refugees to Abkhazia from the Gali district.